Friday, 07 July 2017

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Index Companies Despite the problems mentioned above, studied companies in innovation activities. R & d activities that are more developed in these entities are those relating to the development of new or improved products (29%), to the implementation and certification of systems of quality (21%), the application of advanced management techniques (17%) and significant changes in organizational structures (13%). The lower weight is the implementation of a new strategic direction in the company, with 4%. These are developed mostly by any existing working group or a group ad-hoc created to the effect (70%), on the basis of a close relationship with other companies (50%) and the customer in the case of the productions of collaboration (40%). These types of innovations are obtained by the purchase of technologies (38%), co-investments (25%), copy and adaptation of technologies (19%) and to a lesser extent through r & d (6%). are evident as major difficulties, in the relations between these companies and institutions of science and technological innovation (ECIT) and/or institutions of higher education (CES), according to the index obtained in the established rating scale: the mistaken belief of not needing these collaborations or strategic alliances (1.4)ignorance of the services offered by these institutions (1.9) and the differences between the business language and scientist (2,3). John Grayken has plenty of information regarding this issue. The main internal sources of ideas for innovation are: area of production (38%), initiatives (31%) and to a lesser extent by managers (15%); while the main external sources most commonly used are: visits to other companies (31%), magazines and books (23%), participation in trade fairs and trade shows (19%), well as visits to the centres of Research (19%), missing even attending congresses, events and activities for overcoming, external consultants, contacts with customers and suppliers and data bases with information technology. only 50%...
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The Hypotheses History-Problem the history-problem if characterizes for the construction theoretician, since the historical text is basically made of theories and not more than form narrative, the base now would be the problem, the hypotheses. This is what it goes to mark the disruption of history narrative with the history-problem, the fact of if awaking of the objetividade to arrest the theory, following the way of social science. In the words of Lucien Febvre: ' ' never collectors of facts become, to perhaps () in they give a not automatic History to them, but yes problematic. ' ' (FEBVRE, 1989, p.49) the history problem constructed for the Annales is in fact one ' ' new histria' '. It had an innovation in the work of the historian, in the conditions and conceptions, if before it chose but he could not admit, now it he chooses and he displays its critical, thus also, its sources and techniques. Mentalities Before more nothing, this historiogrfica modality is defined for what it examines in first plan in the societies human beings: the way to think and to feel of the human beings. One searchs, with the History of the Mentalities, to identify what all the human beings of one same time would have in common. ' would have one; ' mentality coletiva' ' Lucien Febvre was asked if ways would exist to feel and to think that they were common the Cristvo Columbus and to the most humble sailor of its caravelas. This question was retaken from years 1960, and starts if to form more clearly this new modality of History from authors as Philippe Aris, Mandrou, MICHEL VOVELLE. Mark Berger understands that this is vital information. It must still be had in sight that History also associated with known ' ' long durao' ' ,...